Overview of Online Resources

Hi, and welcome to exploring old maps. I’m Ross may not and in this session, we’re going to look at the resources available on the internet that will help you to explore old railways and other historical artifacts in the UK. And the resources we’re going to look at a specified on our agenda here. We’re gonna look at two old maps, particularly old Ordnance Survey maps on the National Library of Scotland website an excellent resource. We’re going to look at the rail map online. We’re going to look at the new adult strop railway Atlas. We’ll look at two rails scott.co.uk we’ll look at forgotten relics, and we’ll look at disused stations. And you’ll notice that I’ve made some comments about copyright. And each of these, a copyright obviously for these sites rests with their owners who are detailed here. And they’re free for personal use, but not for business or commercial use. So if you do have a commercial use in mind or using them for a business, then you should contact the copyright owner and seek permission, perhaps pay a license fee. Now I’m based in Scotland. And the area that I’m going to use to illustrate the use of these resources is that of Springburn in Glasgow, and the era of Springburn owes its entire existence to the Industrial Revolution, as we’ll see shortly, and is therefore a good one for exploring old elements of the Industrial Revolution. Some of the resources that I’ve mentioned there don’t have good coverage of Scotland and I’ll mention those as we get to them. But if you’re looking at industrial elements in England or old railways in England or Wales, then they should have much better coverage for your needs there. Okay, so here we have on the screen, a map taken from Google Maps of modern day Springburn. We can see the motorway, caressing the bottom of the map there. We can see the fourth and clay canal just in the top left corner which I’ll mention in a minute, we can see Springburn park there which is next to the red marker to mark the center of Springburn. We see the new stop Hill Hospital next to it which will mentioned very briefly and we see some railway lines running through spring bone which we will definitely mention. Spring bone today is a largely residential area with some good retail opportunities in the past in the 1800s during the Industrial Revolution, it was an extremely industrial area and boasted some of the largest industries in the world. We are going to talk about those industries using the resources I’ve mentioned to illustrate where they were and what they’ve transformed into through the ages. The first old structure that we’re going to talk about is the forth and Clyde canal. Now construction of the forth and Clyde canal was privately funded, and it was approved by Parliament in 1768. We can see it here just touching the top left corner of my map. It doesn’t really come into Springburn, but it affects all the businesses that grew up in this area, and it connects with the monkland Canal, which we’ll talk about next. So I think it’s relevant to just discuss and mention here. It was completed from the Firth of Forth to the fourth of Clyde, and it was completed from the Firth of Forth to North Glasgow by 1775. funds for it then ran out, and government funds had to be approved to complete the canal through to bowling on the Firth of Clyde in 1790. The canal was bought by the Caledonian railway in 1867, and it was nationalized in 1948. It was sadly closed in 1963. However, to mark the millennium, 84 million pounds of funding was put forward and the canal was reopened with a number of new structures and new bridges in 2001, and is now a great resource for walkers for cyclists for canoes. wrists and people on little canal boats and you can navigate right through from Glasgow from the fourth of Clyde to the fourth, fifth fourth, and you also visit the Falkirk wheel which is an amazing structure at full Kirk. The next structure we’re going to talk about is the monkland Canal. Now the forth and Clyde canal opened up the lowlands of Scotland, and allowed coal and other minerals to flow into Glasgow to feed the growing Industrial Revolution. However, it didn’t provide access to the plentiful land extra coal fields, and demand for coal in Glasgow grew and grew as the Industrial Revolution took cold cold from Atlantic shore was extremely expensive, because transport by horse and cart was expensive. So the answer was to build a canal and work started on the monkland Canal in June 1770. And it was managed by James Watt, the famous steam engineer, but he experienced many difficulties with construction And he left the project in 1773 with seven miles completed. The canal finally reached the coal fields around Coatbridge in 1794 and is 12 miles long. The price of coal in Glasgow dropped dramatically as the canal was opened. Only a few sections of the canal exist today. We can see a little bit at the bottom of our map, but most of it is covered by the motorway as we can see at the bottom of the map now, extending most of the way to Coatbridge, a small section leading into Coatbridge is still open for public use. The next area we’re going to explore using the resources is Charles tenants chemical works. Charles Tennant was born in Russia in 1768. And his family knew Robert Burns. In fact, Charles has mentioned in one of Robbie burns his letters, Charles Tennant became an apprentice to a master Weaver, but he left that employment to develop methods of bleaching textiles. He was granted a patent for bleaching powder in 1799. And with some partners he immediately bought land on the monkland Canal in Springburn to build a factory. tenant’s chemical works became the largest in the world by the 1830s and covered 100 acres with over 1000 staff. Just tenant was also a driving force behind the great Reform Act of 1832. And he was one of the early promoters of steam railways, as we will see presently, Charles Tennant died in 1838. And the chemical works which by then was part of ici closed in 1964 and became a large housing estate called sight Hill, which has now been demolished for more than housing to be built. If any of you are beer drinkers, you may have heard of tenants lager. Tenants brewery also been in Glasgow, but that was a different tenant, Hugh and Robert tenants spelt EMT at the end rather than AMT and Charles Tennant opened a brewery near Glasgow Cathedral in 1740. It still exists today. They’re part of a larger group now. The next remnant of the industrial age we’re going to look at is the gong cook and Glasgow railway. In the early 1800s, the monkland Canal had the monopoly of transport of coal from the electrical fields, and they charged accordingly. By 1832, Charles Tennant’s chemical works was consuming 30,000 tons of coal a year and keen to reduce the cost of supply. He became the chief sponsor of the Glasgow and ganker Uk Railway, which would bring coal directly from Coatbridge into Glasgow and coincidentally passed his factory. The whole line was eight miles long. Construction on the line started in 1827. And the line opened in March 1831. It was one of the first lines in Scotland to you steam locomotive in June 1831. The locomotive was one of the planet type built by Robert Stevenson. The gun cook in Glasgow railway line was leased to the Caledonian railway in 1846, thereby giving them access to the city of Glasgow which they hadn’t had before. And the whole line was acquired by the Caledonian railway in 1868. passenger services still operate along the line from Glasgow Queen Street to Coatbridge via steps and the second half of the 19th century, Springburn was to become world famous as the Center for building locomotives, carriages and wagons for the railways. And the first of those works was the cow lays works carolers locomotive carriage and wagon works opened in 1841 with the purpose of building locomotives, carriages and wagons for the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway. The works was taken over by the northbridge railway in 1865 and again by British Rail in 1948. During the Second World War, countless works produced blighters the D day landings. The site was closed in 1994 and is now an industrial park. However, the sidings for the former works and now the site of a Network Rail signaling center. That leads us on to talk about the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. This was authorized by Act of Parliament in 1838 and opened in 1842. It is 46 miles long, running from Glasgow Queen Street Station to Edinburgh Haymarket station originally, and it was extended to Edinburgh Waverley station in 1846. The original journey took two and a half hours with 10 intermediate station stops. The line is still the main line between Edinburgh and Glasgow and the journey now takes around 52 minutes with four or five stops depending on the train that you take. Trains are every 15 minutes in each direction. When the line opened passenger demand was three times that expected. And by 1850, the company needed 58 locomotives and 216 coaches. There is a steep incline on the line from Glasgow Queen Street Station to cow layers. We just mentioned countless works. And that had to be worked by cable haulage until 1909. When steam engines were finally powerful enough to take over the task and haul coaches up the incline. For our next relic of the industrial age, we move away from the railways to briefly discuss the berani pourhouse which was housed in Springburn opened in 1853 berani pourhouse had 160 beds, and it’s also called bonhill pourhouse. In some documents and some maps. Bernie pourhouse was a workhouse an able bodied male inmates were a blessing To make up to 350 bundles of firewood per day, or break 500 weight of stones per day, female inmates worked in the laundry or on Sewing work. The poorhouse was reconstructed in 1904 and became the largest poorhouse in Scotland at that point. The site continue to operate as a care home for vagrants until 1978, and was finally demolished in 1988. With housing now built on the site, the barani pourhouse was also connected with the Woodley lunatic pauper asylum, which was built at lenzy near kirkintilloch and opened in 1875. By 1915, with Delhi hospital held 1300 mental patients, the hospital finally closed in 1992. Back to the railways now with a world famous sent Rolex works isn’t Rolex locomotive works and some Rolex carriage and wagon works were built in 1856 by the Caledonian railway. The works lay on the roof of the gong Kirk and Glasgow Railway, which at that time was being operated by the Caledonian railway center. Alex became the main northern loco and carriage works of the London Midland and Scottish railways in 1923, and employs 4000 people at that time. Some relics became part of British Rail in 1948 and has passed through various private operators since the 1990s. The site was largely demolished in the 1990s with large retailers including Costco and Tesco arriving from 2001. The small remainder of the railway works was closed at the end of 2019. Another of the famous Springburn at railway works was Hyde Park works. In 1837, Walter Nielsen and James Mitchell open The factory in Hyde Park Street on the river Clyde in Glasgow and manufactured to marine and stationary engines there. They began to manufacture steam locomotives there in 1843 and move the whole factory to Springburn in 1861, calling it the Hyde Park works. The company became part of the North British locomotive company in 1903 and was nationalized in 1948. The site closed in 1964. And Glasgow Calvin College now stands on the site. The fourth of the big railway works in Springburn was the Atlas works. The Clyde locomotive company was founded in 1884 by a former partner of Nielsen and company at the Hyde Park works. The site is practically across the road from Hyde Park works. In 1888. The site was acquired by sharp Stewart and company who renamed it the Atlas works The company themselves have been building locomotives in Manchester since the 1830s. But moved the factory to Glasgow to benefit from the highly skilled labor force and the access to the railways. Yeah, this works had built 5000 locomotives. By the time it became part of the North British locomotive company in 1903. The site closed in 1923 and is now an industrial park. Let’s get on then. And look at these historic sites in the resources that we have. Firstly, the old maps.