Best Concrete Courses

Find the best online Concrete Courses for you. The courses are sorted based on popularity and user ratings. We do not allow paid placements in any of our rankings. We also have a separate page listing only the Free Concrete Courses.

Reinforced Concrete IV: Design of Columns

Civil Engineering : How to Design Reinforced Concrete Columns: Derivations and Calculations.

Created by Hamid ElDarwich - Ph.D. 25', M.A. - Princeton University

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Students: 3152, Price: $89.99

Students: 3152, Price:  Paid

 Make sure you know Reinforced Concrete Theory and How to design Reinforced Concrete beams before taking this course. 

about the course: 

In the previous courses, you have been introduced to the philosophy of  Reinforced Concrete Design, Design of Beams, and Design of Slabs. This course 'Design of Reinforced Concrete  Column' gives you detailed understanding, explanations and procedures for  the design of RC Columns.

  What to expect from this course:

After completion of this course, you are expected to be able to Design RC Short Columns without Eccentricity, Understand Interaction Diagrams, Practicality Considerations, and Mathematical Derivations of Formulas in the Design.

Students completing the course will have full understanding of the  design of RC Column. Assignment is given at the end.

Introduction to Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings

Methods to rehabilate Reinforced Concrete Buildings Against Earthquake

Created by Hamid ElDarwich - Ph.D. 25', M.A. - Princeton University

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Students: 2433, Price: $89.99

Students: 2433, Price:  Paid

A Civil Engineering Course by Hamid ElDarwich, Civil Engineerig Philosophy Founder:

Seismic Rehabiliation is the modfication of existing structure to make it more resistant to earthquakes. During the unergrad studies, engineers spend their time learning about the design of buildings rather than maintaining or rehabilitating the existing structure.

In this minicourse, I will cover some the methods that can be used for seismic rehabiliation of Rreinforced Concrete Buildings; this course is meant to be only a basic course because each method I will be covering desevres a whole course on its own; I have summarized the basic concepts about these methods that the engineers need to know in case they are assigned a rehabiliation project.

The methods that will be covered are:

- Base Isolation,

- TMD (Tuned Mass Damper)

- CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) Wrapping

- Steel Jacketing

- Adding New Structural Elements

- Adding Supplemtary Dampers

- Slosh Tanks

Finally, I will provide a comparison between these methods per project basis; this comparison will help the engineer decide when to use this or that method for a specific project.

How a Building is Designed and Built – Part 2 of 6

The Structure - Cranes, Cast-In-Place Concrete, Precast, Structural Steel, Masonry, Tilt-Up Concrete & Wood Construction

Created by Matthew Morris - Senior Instructor and Professional Engineer

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Students: 1406, Price: $149.99

Students: 1406, Price:  Paid

No matter which role you have in a building construction project, it is vital that you understand the "guts" of a building in order to make a positive impact.  For contractors, engineers, architects, real estate developers and facilities managers, it takes years or even decades to learn the materials and systems in a building.  The typical source of this education is on-the-job because this material is not taught in schools. Young professionals spend an extraordinary amount of time trying to understand the complexities of a modern building.  Every project is different and the materials and systems can change drastically from one building to the next.  Time can be better spent by adding value to projects instead of learning terminology and construction sequencing.  The lessons in the course have been developed to boil down years of on-the-job training into high-impact, bite-sized classes.

OSHA Safety Pro: Deadly Concrete Dust. Crystalline Silica.

OSHA's General, Construction, and Maritime Industries Hazard Prevention and Safety Standard.

Created by James Neil - Health & Safety Official

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Students: 1265, Price: $19.99

Students: 1265, Price:  Paid

Receive a FREE and editable HSE Work Zone Traffic Control Safety Manual complete with forms, training records, a safety committee program, and an incident investigation program. for enrolling in this course.

This course is about crystalline silica, aka, 'deadly dust'. It covers OSHA's Maritime, General, and Construction Industry standards.

Deadly dust encounters everyone, regardless of where we work and live. It is in the air, and it travels along with dust particles. 

This course not only covers the OSHA standards, it identifies methods of awareness of the hazard and how to prevent it. 

With this course, you will gain insight and expertise on how to identify the hazard of crystalline silica, reduce it, and take action against exposure to it. You will learn how to eliminate it, and protect yourself, and others around you, from the threats and adverse health affects it poses to your health. 

This course is less than one hour and is designed to facilitate a high level of application and retention above similar courses that are much longer. It is designed to enlighten you at your level, with your busy schedule in mind. This course is efficient and quick without compromising the value of your health and safety, while, creating a heightened level of safety awareness, and prevention of the hazard, crystalline silica.

Understanding the gravity of the hazard of crystalline silica ('Deadly Dust'), learn how to be a hero, and save lives and prevent pain and suffering through the employment of effective countermeasures that will battle and even defeat this silent enemy.

Reinforced & Prestressed Concrete for Construction Managers

Increase your value as a construction manager by gaining vital knowledge about concrete reinforcing and prestressing.

Created by Jim Rogers - More knowledge makes better construction profesionals

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Students: 1000, Price: $29.99

Students: 1000, Price:  Paid

Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. In addition to understanding concrete, today's construction professional needs to understand the principles of concrete reinforcing and how prestressed concrete works. This includes both pre-tensioned concrete that is typically manufactured in a precast plant, and post-tensioned concrete that is cast-in-place. Post-tensioned concrete is being used more and more throughout the world to build multi-story structures, slabs-on-ground, and bridges, while precast prestressed concrete continues to be used in rapidly built structures like parking garages. Understanding how and why reinforcing and prestressing works in a concrete structure.

Gain a better understanding of the principle and theory behind concrete reinforcing and prestressing to help you be a better construction management professional.

After completing this course you will be able to...

  • Explain the meaning of passive reinforcing versus active reinforcing and list examples of each
  • Discuss the effects of adding rebar to a concrete element
  • Explain how the change in location of the rebar within the concrete effects its performance
  • List advantages of prestressed concrete
  • Describe the difference between pre-tensioned and post-tensioned reinforcing
  • Describe the precast concrete process
  • Explain how post-tensioned concrete works
  • List common examples of prestressed concrete structures

Learn from a professional

My courses have been created as a place where everyone, whether you are an experienced professional, a young project engineer, new to a trade or a seasoned journeyman, can come to learn more about the industry that we have chosen as our profession. That's what this platform is about. These courses are meant to be a way for you to increase your knowledge of the construction industry in a variety of cutting edge topics from concrete reinforcing and prestressing, to micro trenching, to safety management systems. This is not a course that teaches you how to install rebar or prestressing steel. It is a course that educates you on why we reinforce concrete and how it works. This is information you need as a construction professional in order to talk to designers, owners and subcontractors.

This course is a great way for you to increase your knowledge about concrete reinforcing and prestressing.

Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals

Learn reinforced concrete with solved example problems!

Created by Alp CINAR - M.Sc. in Engineering

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Students: 698, Price: $29.99

Students: 698, Price:  Paid

Welcome to Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals course! In this course, all aspects of reinforced concrete design and analysis are covered through numerous solved example problems in every section. After completing all the lectures and sample problem solutions, you will have a thorough understanding of the behavior and properties of reinforced concrete as an engineering material. Furthermore, you will have a strong foundation to analyze and design reinforced concrete beams and columns.

Become a Better Construction Manager – Learn About Concrete

Today's construction manager needs to understand how the most widely used building material on Earth actually works.

Created by Jim Rogers - More knowledge makes better construction profesionals

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Students: 657, Price: $49.99

Students: 657, Price:  Paid

Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. Today's construction professional needs to understand how this material works, how it has evolved and how it is made. The course includes discussions on the chemistry behind making concrete, and the evolution of the science behind making concrete. These are things that today's construction professional needs to understand in order to effectively manage today's projects. You will learn the meaning and origins of the terms and processes used in the industry by today's concrete producers and engineers so that you become a more effective and more professional construction pro.

Gain a better understanding of the chemistry behind the Worlds most widely used building material and learn how its production has evolved to produce a more advanced and eco-friendly finished product.

After completing this course you will be able to...

  • Describe the difference between concrete and cement
  • List the basic components or ingredients needed to make concrete
  • Explain how concrete uses industrial by-products
  • Discuss how these by-products enhance the properties of concrete
  • Describe the chemical process through which concrete gets hard
  • Explain how chemical admixtures can be used to alter the properties of concrete
  • Define the terms used by designers and producers when they are preparing and reviewing concrete mix designs

Learn from a professional

My courses have been created as a place where everyone, whether you are an experienced professional, a young project engineer, new to a trade or a seasoned journeyman, can come to learn more about the industry that we have chosen as our profession. That's what this platform is about. These courses are meant to be a way for you to increase your knowledge of the construction industry in a variety of cutting edge topics from concrete reinforcing and prestressing, to micro trenching, to safety management systems. These are not meant to be how-to courses. These are meant to be courses that educate you on a construction topic and give you a real understanding of how something works or why its being used. This is also meant to be an unbiased platform that discusses both the advantages and the limitations of the topic being taught.

This course is a great way for you to increase your knowledge about the material science behind the production of concrete.

Concrete Technology MCQ Practice Questions (Civil Eng)

Examination Preparation and Interview questions on Concrete Technology Practice questions for Civil Engineering

Created by Manu Mitra - Software Analyst

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Students: 384, Price: $19.99

Students: 384, Price:  Paid

Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. In the past limebased cement binders were often used, such as lime putty, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement or with Portland cement to form Portland cement concrete (for its visual resemblance to Portland stone). Many other non-cementitious types of concrete exist with different methods of binding aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, which is frequently used for road surfaces, and polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder.

When aggregate is mixed with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Often, additives (such as pozzolans or superplasticizers) are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials (such as rebar) embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.

These questions will give you basic idea for Examination Preparation and/or interview on Concrete Technology Practice questions for Civil Engineering.

Please Note:

  1. These questions are only for practice and understanding level of knowledge only. It is not necessary that these questions may or may not appear for examinations and/or interview questions

  2. In this practice test, because of large amount of questions (around 234 questions) some of questions may have repeated

  3. I had to put as 70% pass rate because there may also be wrong answers from my side.

Tekla Structures (Concrete) From Scratch(Under construction)

Tekla structure(concrete) From Zero.

Created by Creative Engineering Center - Educational center

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Students: 245, Price: $89.99

Students: 245, Price:  Paid

In this Course you will learn how to model all concrete elements

(column, beam, polybeam, Panel, slab, pad footing and strip Footing)

you will learn how to edit the elements (Chamfer, move, copy and mirror)

you will learn how to add views, controll the view,display, work area and others)

You will learn how to add Reinforcement for Footings, columns (Rectangular and Circular) beam, panel and slab.

And then, we are going to model a building and add reinforcement to all elements.

After modeling, we will create Bill of quantities tables, and create general arrangement drawings.

Fundamentals of Concrete Technology

Condensed guide on the properties of concrete to push your engineering skill set to the next level

Created by Adam Brittan - Creative Construction Courses

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Students: 114, Price: $24.99

Students: 114, Price:  Paid

By the end of this course, you will fully grasp the theory behind the production of concrete from chemical compound, all the way to quality hardened concrete.

We’re not going to worry about the design of concrete elements in this course, but instead take a deep dive into fundamental concrete properties and behaviour as the concrete sets on site.

Please Note this course covers the properties of concrete and not the design of reinforced concrete elements.

I have designed this course for engineers early in their career that are looking to take their knowledge of concrete to the next level, but don’t have the time to sift through textbooks looking for the relevant facts, or are struggling to get enough actual site time while being stuck in the office all day.

The main items we'll focus on in this course are:

  • Cementitious materials

  • The hydration process

  • The influence of admixtures and aggregates

  • Properties of fresh and hardened concrete

  • Workability, settlement, bleeding and plastic shrinkage

  • Tensile and core strength

We'll focus not only on the theory, but also real world considerations that are not often found in the text books.

This course has been specifically designed to give value to you, the student, and lifetime access means you will receive all future updates and additions free of charge.

If you are not 100% sure this course is for you, feel free to take a look around. If you are not convinced, there is a 30 day money back guarantee with no hard feelings or questions asked.

Thanks for taking the time to view this course, and I hope to see you in there!

Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC)

A chance to learn how to control cracking of concrete

Created by Dr. Zahran Al-Kamyani - PhD Civil Engineering

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Students: 73, Price: $49.99

Students: 73, Price:  Paid

For the first time in Udemy, you will learn about Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). One of the most important topic in the field of construction engineering. Please enrol and get the your first offer for $9.99 using HOT21SUMMER

Do you know that cracking of concrete is inevitable and at the same time civil and structural engineers are spending much time and efforts to control this phenomenon. One of the best solutions, nowadays, is the use of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC).

In this course you are going to learn about Fibre / Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) incorporating both metallic and non-metallic fibres. By the end of the course you are expected to:

  • Know different types of fibers and their properties

  • Conducting flexural analyse of FRC elements

  • Become a designer and being able to design structural members made of FRC

  • Understand durability and sustainability of structures incorporating fibres

Course teaching will be based on explaining the theoretical part and then illustrating numerical or practical examples. To enhance and secure a better understanding, some practical images from civil engineering field will be shown and students will get a copy of Excel analysis spreadsheets. In addition to the online quizzes, students will get some exercises to solve on their own time.

Join the course and gain the cognition and knowledge to become a structural designer and analyser of FRC elements.

Concrete Bridges Design – Fundamentals

Learn The Different Systems of Bridges and How to Design Each Type Properly

Created by Wael Guirguis - Ph.D. Researcher

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Students: 62, Price: $89.99

Students: 62, Price:  Paid

Students will learn the fundamentals of bridges Engineering. We will start by illustrating the different types of bridges and how to select the proper system for your bridge based on the understanding the pros and cons for each system. Then we will go in depth in clarifying the dead and live loads acting on any bridge and we will focus on the live loads calculations and the different cases of loading which are the most important part in the design. In order to make you understand better the concept and theories, we will have solved examples on each part of the course to show you step by step each part of the design process.

Thin Shell Concrete Structures

Modern Architecture

Created by Federico von Borstel - Professor

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Students: 33, Price: $89.99

Students: 33, Price:  Paid

This is a course on the developments of Thin Shell Concrete Structures in Modern Architecture. The course traces the development of this unique and beautiful architecture from its origins to some of its most prolific architects and designers. The geometries used in this type of architecture are unique and substantially different from those of standard post and beam architecture. The forms achieved by these architects, engineers and designers have revolutionized modern architecture. I teach lecture courses and studios as I wish they would have been taught to me. Much of the graphic material in my lectures is taken or generated first hand directly by me on site. I teach to learn. I teach subjects as I wish they were taught to me. The Mission Statement. Education is a tool for the improvement of successive generations. I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. Confucius

This course is designed under the premise that humans should be taught in a way that is modeled after the educational patterns of evolution.

The design, development and application of educational systems based on the educational principles of evolution generates a philosophy and methodology of education in synchrony with the evolutionary education system that is firmly and deeply rooted in each of us.

Education for evolution is an educational system designed to help propel humans forward in the natural course of evolution. The purpose of education for evolution is to enhance and strengthen the natural evolutionary process of humans through the mechanism of education. The means to achieve this objective is the design of a curricula based on the same educational techniques and strategies used by natural evolution, enhanced and guided by the application of conscious educational decisions.

Design Principles of Concrete Structures – II

Basics , Design of Single [4 Design Methods] and Doubly beam , T- Beam and Slab design

Created by Civil MDC - Professional Trainer

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Students: 22, Price: $89.99

Students: 22, Price:  Paid

Lecture-1- Load Transfer from Slabs to Beams

_ Lecture-2- Bar Bending Schedule

_ Lecture-3 Design Examples

_ Lecture-4- Flexural Analysis and Design of Doubly Beams

_ Lecture-5- Flexural Analysis and Design of T & L Beams

_ Lecture-6- Flexural Analysis and Design of T & L Beams

_ Lecture-7- One way slab design

_ Lecture-8- Two way slab design

Dlubal RFEM : Concrete Edition

Complete Residential Building from Beginning to Pro

Created by Civil Engineer's Destination - Architect by Heart, Civil Engineer by Profession.

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Students: 12, Price: $89.99

Students: 12, Price:  Paid

Complete Modelling , Analysis and Design of the Residential Building in Dlubal RFEM.

We will learn from the Basics so that you can understand each and everything in the Dlubal RFEM.

We will learn these things :-

  • Initial Settings

  • Modelling of the Concrete Elements

  • Staircase Modelling

  • Loads

  • Analysis

  • Design and many more things................

RFEM is a powerful 3D FEA program helping structural engineers meet requirements in modern civil engineering. Efficient data input and intuitive handling facilitate modeling of simple and large structures.

The structural analysis program RFEM is the basis of a modular software system. The main program RFEM is used to define structures, materials, and loads for planar and spatial structural systems consisting of plates, walls, shells and members. The program also allows you to create combined structures as well as model solid and contact elements.

Intuitive Graphical User-Interface

A structure is created in the graphical user interface typical for CAD programs or by using tables. Right-clicking on graphical or navigator objects activates the shortcut menu, which facilitates creating or editing such objects. The user interface is operated intuitively. Therefore the model and loading objects can be created in a minimal amount of time.

So if you are interested in the in learning the Dlubal RFEM this course is for you !!!

Reinforced Concrete Beam Design with RAPT

Practical design and analyse a reinforced concrete beam with RAPT (step by step modeling and design)

Created by Structural Engineering Design Centre (SEDC) - Structural Engineering

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Students: 9, Price: $34.99

Students: 9, Price:  Paid

RAPT is a very powerful program for reinforced and pre-stressed concrete design of structural systems and the aim of this course is to teach you how to use this software in order to practically design and analyze a reinforced concrete beam. Also, I will explain how to use different tools in this program to model special design conditions along with the specific code requirements.

In this course, we will have a Step by step modeling of a reinforced concrete beam in RAPT

You will learn about the different tools in Rapt in order to model different vertical or horizontal steps, concrete layers and concrete elements in this program

I will also explain how to set code-specific requirements and where in the code these requirements are mentioned.

Also, you will learn how to specify different spans and slab/beam thicknesses as well as different support conditions for our beams which can be columns, knife edges, or fixed supports

You will see how we can set the beam’s dimensions and effective width as per the requirements of the code and also how to define drop panels and drop capes and what are the differences between these two. I will explain how to define a transverse beam and what are the differences between band and beam in RAPT.

In the next section, you will see how we can define different load cases and load combinations in the program and look at the requirement of the code as well as applying different line loads, pressures, area load, point load, and moments on the Beam.

You will learn how to specify reinforcement for a new and existing beam and define the top and bottom reinforcement and then we will go through the code specific design data and see how to modify them if required.

Finally, we will look at the results of the beam design and do the strength and serviceability check.

By the end of this course, you will learn how to practically design and analyze a reinforced concrete beam in RAPT and also how to use different tools in this program to model special design conditions.

My goal is to add value to my students by conveying my practical knowledge, so please do not hesitate to ask if you ask any questions.

Concrete Mix Design – IS 10262:2019 + Excel CMD Sheet

A complete guide to concrete mix design for students and professionals

Created by Tanvesh Dabholkar - Chartered Structural Engineer

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Students: 8, Price: $34.99

Students: 8, Price:  Paid

In this course you will learn the basics of concrete mix design according to indian standard code IS 10262 - 2019 latest revision.

You will learn concrete mix design up to M65 and also high strength concrete mix design upto M90.

Further we will see the inclusion of mineral admixtures like fly ash and GGBS and pozolonic material like silica.

At the end of the course, you can download 2 excel files which will help you in design concrete mix design for normal and high strength mix. Kindly note these files are only for educational purpose.

This course is suitable for students as well as professional who work in the domain of concrete mix design. As you know every civil engineer should definitely have a basic knowledge regarding concrete mix design this course will help you to be updated with the latest codal revisions and design.

The basic knowledge that you would require for this course would be the basic idea of what is a concrete and what are its constituent materials. Also, you would need to have a basic knowledge of using Indian standard code for concrete practices IS 456 2000 revision.

For any query on how to use the excel sheet you can contact me via mail dcba.net9@gmail.com.

Fundamentals of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete, Part I

Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Design

Created by Emad Nassar - A Structural Engineer

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Students: 8, Price: $19.99

Students: 8, Price:  Paid

This course is made out of 2 parts and It covers the fundamentals/ basics  of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete structures. It includes reinforced concrete design using the working  stress design philosophy as well as the strength design method. Part 1 of this course is dedicated to the design of different reinforced concrete Structural elements while part 2 of the course is dedicated to the Prestressed Concrete design.

Part 1 of the  course includes the following topics:

Introduction: Concrete and Reinforcing Steel

Analysis of R.C. at different load stages

Design of Reinforced Concrete Elements

Reinforced Concrete Beams

Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Reinforced Concrete Columns for Eccentric and Concentric Loading

Reinforced Concrete Stairs

Panelled Beams

Reinforced Concrete Footing

Retaining Walls

Reinforced Concrete subjected to Torsion

Part 2 is dedicated to Prestressed Concrete and the contents of which will be added to the Course Landing Page for Part 2. Upon finishing the complete course, Parts 1 and 2, you will be able to design many Reinforced Concrete and Prestressed Concrete structures. Details of reinforcement and prestressing Anchor will be provided throughout the 2 parts as part of the completed design of various elements. This course will almost complete my courses related to Structural design. If you are missing any or some of the basics of Structural engineering analysis of structures, then I would advise the participants to check or get enrolled into any or all of the Basics of Structural Analysis Courses previously Launched.

Repair and Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structure

Assessment, Evaluation, Repair and Strengthenining concrete structure

Created by Mohamed Elreedy - Ph. D

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Students: 5, Price: $79.99

Students: 5, Price:  Paid

This course will cover the ways of assessment the concrete structure. The ways and techniques of collecting the data and what the data you need to do the evaluation. You will have a check list to facilitate collecting data about the structures. The corrosion phenmonia and how to diagnosis the reasons of cracks will be presented. The concrete visual inspection and non destructive tests and the corrosion of steel bars test are discussed in detail from practical point of view. All these methods of inspection and detailed are using worldwide and match with the ACI, BS and european code. The repair and strengtehening for different concrete members like above skeleton from slab, beam and colum with different modes of failure will be discussed. In this course the other methods of repair and strengthening such as the  repair method by using steel sections will be presented by a real example and practical methods. The adavnced repair method by using FRP which is very essential in some structures and need some special calculation and application will be  illustrated in this course.  To be a comprehensive course and more useful at the end of the course the attendees will receive FREE three ebooks to cover this course subjects.

At the end of the course the partcipant will learn how to evaluate the conceret structure and how to define the repair methods.

Learn How To Design A Reinforce Concrete Column.

Design a Reinforce concrete column with from scratch and become a pro.

Created by Elvis Innocent Agbede - CIVIL/STRUCTURAL DESIGNER,MATHEMATICS TEACHER,ENTREPRENEUR

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Students: 3, Price: $89.99

Students: 3, Price:  Paid

This course will teach you how to design a reinforced concrete columns. We will design two type of columns namely:

  • Square Column

  • Circular columns

    This course will guide you through how to use ACI-318 code to properly design the columns. We will also know the requirements we should follow when designing columns like the maximum spacing of the bars, the minimum column dimensions, the percentage of steel which should be needed etc.

  • Like you all know if you want to become a good structural engineer you should be able to at least design a reinforcement concrete column and because in a structure if a column fail, then the structure fails as well, to prevent this; you should be able to properly design a good reinforce concrete column to avoid failure.

  • A square column is a column that has all its sizes equal. That is the size of the width and depth of the column is similar. And the stirrup that goes inside the square column as the reinforcement is called a tied stirrup.

  • A Rectangular column is a column that has the width of the column different from the depth of the column. While the stirrup which is also use a reinforcement for rectangular column is also called a tied stirrup.

  • A circular column is a column that has a circular dimension which is the diameter. Finally the stirrups that goes inside the circular column as the reinforcement is called the spiral stirrup.